Studies

This list contains all the studies I’ve collected over time. It is not a complete list as the mountain of evidence supporting a vegan lifestyle is huge and growing rapidly.

General

The British Dietetic Association and the American Dietetic Association, both the largest bodies of nutrition professionals in their countries state that a well-planed vegan diet is safe, healthy and nutritionally adequate for all stages of life including pregnancy. Furthermore the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage. Vegetarians and vegans are at reduced risk of certain health conditions, including ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain types of cancer, and obesity.
https://www.bda.uk.com/news/view?id=179
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864
https://www.eatrightpro.org/practice/position-and-practice-papers/position-papers/vegetarian-diets

Perm J. 2017;22. doi: 10.7812/TPP/17-025.
Lifestyle Medicine: A Brief Review of Its Dramatic Impact on Health and Survival.
Bodai BI1, Nakata TE2, Wong WT3, Clark DR4, Lawenda S5, Tsou C6, Liu R7, Shiue L8, Cooper N9, Rehbein M10, Ha BP11, Mckeirnan A12, Misquitta R13, Vij P14, Klonecke A15, Mejia CS16, Dionysian E17, Hashmi S18, Greger M19, Stoll S20, Campbell TM21.

Nutrients. 2014 May 27;6(6):2131-47. doi: 10.3390/nu6062131.
Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.
Le LT1, Sabaté J2.

JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 8;173(13):1230-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473.
Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.
Orlich MJ1, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Knutsen S, Beeson WL, Fraser GE.

Nutrients. 2014 Mar 24;6(3):1318-32. doi: 10.3390/nu6031318.
Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet.
Clarys P1, Deliens T2, Huybrechts I3, Deriemaeker P4, Vanaelst B5, De Keyzer W6, Hebbelinck M7, Mullie P8.

J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jun;111(6):819-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.03.012.
A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.
Farmer B1, Larson BT, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Rainville AJ, Liepa GU.

Nutr J. 2013 Jun 13;12:82. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-82.
Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects.
Clarys P1, Deriemaeker P, Huybrechts I, Hebbelinck M, Mullie P.

Arch Intern Med. 2009 Aug 10;169(15):1355-62. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.237.
Healthy living is the best revenge: findings from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study.
Ford ES1, Bergmann MM, Kröger J, Schienkiewitz A, Weikert C, Boeing H.

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Dec;113(12):1610-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.06.349. Epub 2013 Aug 27.
Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.
Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Fraser GE.
NCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 98, Issue 5, 1 March 2006, Pages 345–354, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj071 Published: 01 March 2006
Meat Intake and Risk of Stomach and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Carlos A. González Paula Jakszyn Guillem Pera Antonio Agudo Sheila BinghamDomenico Palli Pietro Ferrari Heiner Boeing Giuseppe del Giudice Mario Plebani

Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56(4):245-52. doi: 10.1159/000288281. Epub 2010 Apr 14.
A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and improves health-related quality of life and work productivity.
Katcher HI1, Ferdowsian HR, Hoover VJ, Cohen JL, Barnard ND.

Cardiovascular Disease 

J Fam Pract. 2014 Jul;63(7):356-364b
A way to reverse CAD?
Esselstyn CB Jr1, Gendy G, Doyle J, Golubic M, Roizen MF.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1172-1187. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.086.
Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.
Freeman AM1, Morris PB2, Barnard N3, Esselstyn CB4, Ros E5, Agatston A6, Devries S7, O’Keefe J8, Miller M9, Ornish D10, Williams K11, Kris-Etherton P12.

Published: 21 July 1990
Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial
D. Ornish, MD , S.E. Brown, MD , J.H. Billings, PhD , L.W. Scherwitz, PhD , W.T. Armstrong, MD , T.A. Ports, MD , S.M. McLanahan, MD , R.L. Kirkeeide, PhD , K.L. Gould, MD (Prof) , R.J. Brand, PhD (Prof)

Am J Cardiol. 1998 Nov 26;82(10B):18T-21T.
Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China study.
Campbell TC1, Parpia B, Chen J.

Angiology. 2000 Oct;51(10):817-26.
The effect of high-protein diets on coronary blood flow.
Fleming RM1.

Cancer

WHO on the cancer risk of meat:  “The consumption of processed meat was associated with small increases in the risk of cancer in the studies reviewed. In those studies, the risk generally increased with the amount of meat consumed. An analysis of data from 10 studies estimated that every 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by about 18%. The cancer risk related to the consumption of red meat is more difficult to estimate because the evidence that red meat causes cancer is not as strong. However, if the association of red meat and colorectal cancer were proven to be causal, data from the same studies suggest that the risk of colorectal cancer could increase by 17% for every 100 gram portion of red meat eaten daily.” The IARC Working Group, consisting of 22 experts from 10 countries, considered more than 800 different studies on cancer in humans. http://www.who.int/features/qa/cancer-red-meat/en/

Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):28-34.
Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro.
Barnard RJ1, Gonzalez JH, Liva ME, Ngo TH.

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011 Mar;20(2):132-9. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3283429e32.
Salt, processed meat and the risk of cancer.
Hu J1, La Vecchia C, Morrison H, Negri E, Mery L; Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group.

Cell Metab. 2014 Mar 4;19(3):407-17. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.006.
Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population.
Levine ME1, Suarez JA2, Brandhorst S2, Balasubramanian P2, Cheng CW2, Madia F3, Fontana L4, Mirisola MG5, Guevara-Aguirre J6, Wan J2, Passarino G7, Kennedy BK8, Wei M2, Cohen P2, Crimmins EM1, Longo VD9.

Eggs and Cholesterol 

Can J Cardiol. 2010 Nov;26(9):e336-9.
Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease.
Spence JD1, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J.

Atherosclerosis. 2013 Aug;229(2):524-30. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.04.003. Epub 2013 Apr 17.
Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Li Y1, Zhou C, Zhou X, Li L.

Nutr Diabetes. 2018 Apr 25;8(1):20. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0033-1.
Longitudinal association between egg consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease: interaction with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Jang J1, Shin MJ2, Kim OY3, Park K4.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Jun;55(6):1060-70.
Effects of dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis and review.
Hopkins PN1.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jun 2;43(11):2142-6.
Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 70 mg/dl: lower is better and physiologically normal.
O’Keefe JH Jr1, Cordain L, Harris WH, Moe RM, Vogel R.

Dairy

BMJ. 2014 Oct 28;349:g6015. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g6015.
Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies.
Michaëlsson K1, Wolk A2, Langenskiöld S3, Basu S3, Warensjö Lemming E4, Melhus H5, Byberg L6.

Diabetes 

Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Nov;32(11):2312-21.
High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-treated men with diabetes mellitus.
Anderson JW, Ward K.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 89, Issue 5, 1 May 2009, Pages 1588S–1596S
A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial
Neal D Barnard  Joshua Cohen  David JA Jenkins  Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy Lise Gloede  Amber Green  Hope Ferdowsian

Other

Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):774-80. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00113809. Epub 2010 Feb 11.
Impact of dietary shift to higher-antioxidant foods in COPD: a randomised trial.
Keranis E1, Makris D, Rodopoulou P, Martinou H, Papamakarios G, Daniil Z, Zintzaras E, Gourgoulianis KI.

J Physiol. 2017 May 1;595(9):2785-2807. doi: 10.1113/JP273230. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers.
Burke LM1,2, Ross ML1,2, Garvican-Lewis LA1,2, Welvaert M3,4, Heikura IA1,2, Forbes SG1, Mirtschin JG1, Cato LE1, Strobel N5, Sharma AP6, Hawley JA2,7

Published online 2014 May 15. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.038
Dietary fat composition and dementia risk
Martha Clare Morrisa and Christine C. Tangneyb

Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Sep;35 Suppl 2:S74-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.033. Epub 2014 May 14.
Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.
Barnard ND1, Bush AI2, Ceccarelli A3, Cooper J4, de Jager CA5, Erickson KI6, Fraser G7, Kesler S8, Levin SM9, Lucey B10, Morris MC11, Squitti R12.

Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(3):397-9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512002048. Epub 2012 May 24.
The secret story of fish: decreasing nutritional value due to pollution?
Ruzzin J1, Jacobs DR

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